What is the surface temperature of the planet?

A planet of radius r and mass M has a homogeneous atmosphere (density independent of height). The atmosphere has a height h and the atmosphere’s gas has a molar mass μ.
What is the surface temperature of the planet?

A thermometer is placed in a test-tube of liquid

A thermometer is placed in a test-tube of liquid. The temperature of the liquid is recorded every half minute.

 time 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 temperature °C 55 49 43 43 43 39 36

What is the melting point of the substance?

Why does ice melt faster in water than in air?

When ice melts, it changes from a solid to a liquid, the process is called melting and occurs at a temperature called the melting point.

Inside Of A Rocket

A barometer shows that an air pressure inside of a rocket before the launch is 10^5 pa. What is the change of air temperature inside the rocket during its launch, if the air pressure is increased to 1.2*10^5 pa ?
The rocket accelerates at a rate of 10 m/s^2.

Does the temperature of a particle increase as it is accelerated to relativistic speeds?

Image Credit: CERN.

Temperature is a macroscopic quantity. It is meant that temperature is a property of a collection of particles.